AEROKOPTER 1-3 SANKA HELICOPTER
The small truss-type airframe is made of triangulated Chrome Alloy tubing with two separate upside-down “V” side frames used to attach the Main Rotor Gearbox (MRG) to the air frame. Also detachable are two engine mounting sub-frames that carry the engine weight via rubber insulated engine mounts below the engine. On each lower corner of the airframe is welded a large circular clamp through which the 51 mm diameter Titanium-tube skid legs pass through. At the front of the airframe are four attachment points that hold the cabin-structure in place. All structural bolts used thoughout the Sanka are metric sizes and made from Titainium. The cabin floor is fastened on top of a triangulated Duralumin sub-frame and this sub-frame is attached to the Chrome Alloy airframe.
Detachable side frames attach to main rotor gearbox.
These skid-legs are single-piece U-bent tubes and are secured via rubber bushes inside these circular clamps. The lower end of each Titanium skid tube has a steel foot attachment to which is fixed the Duralumin skids. This “under carriage” looks very robust yet is extremely light-weight. Each skid has a Duralumim Dolly-wheel attachment-point and on each side of the front legs are beautifully machined Duralumin foot pegs to assist entry into the cabin.
Note that the skid legs (2) are made of one single Titanium tube 51 mm diameter.
The MRG and integral primary reduction drive unit together form an upside-down “L” with a cross brace linking the two ends to form a triangle. This triangle then forms part of the airframe structure and is the attachment point for the front of the tailboom and top engine mount. There are two Duralumin diagonal struts attached on each side, at the rear of the airframe and these attach to the underside of the tailboom to support it approx two thirds down its length.
The use of the MRG drive system as part of the airframe is unusual in a helicopter and is the same principal used in formulae-one cars and super-bikes where the engine-gearbox forms part of the chassis. By using this integrated truss-frame design has allowed the use minimal amount of Chrome-alloy steel tubing without sacrificing rigidity, but saving weight.
Side and front views. (This is a the touched up photo of a drawing.)
The tail boom is made up of four rolled aluminium sheet sections, forming tubes and riveted together using solid rivets. At the three joins connecting these four tube sections, are large machined ribs that hold the three tail rotor drive shaft support bearings. There are four additional smaller machined ribs positioned midway the length of the four tube section for maximum rigidity. Each of the tail rotor drive shaft bearings is held in a rubber pad, which in turn rests inside an aluminium housing bolted to the large ribs, thus allowing some "float". The drive shaft is a single length 22 mm chrome alloy steel tube with collet bushings clamped onto the shaft in line with the support bearings. At each end of the drive shaft a electroplated steel coupler is fitted using two conical bushes and a Titanium bolt. Next to the front coupler is a light steel gear wheel with 24 flat teeth. This "gear wheel" is the rotor RPM magnetic sensor trigger, with each gear tooth passing over the magnetic sensor generating an electrical pulse to power the Rotor RPM instrument. In the event of complete electrical and power failure, the Rotor rpm instrument will still work during autorotation.
The tail boom has re-enforcing gusseting added at strategic locations, such as at the tail boom mounting points, at the vertical and horizontal stabilizer attachment points and where the anti-torque control cable guide pulleys and rear control quadrant are attached. The horizontal and vertical tail fins are fabricated from riveted aluminium sheet onto CNC machined ribs and end caps. All the tail boom bracketry is CNC machined and any material not adding strength, is machined away to save weight. Where ever a Titanium mounting bolt needs to pass through the Aluminium structure, a stainless steel or Titanium collar is first inserted
As can be seen from photos the attension to detail and workmanship is excellent. In
Power transmission system:
Engine power transmission uses the traditional and proven design, consisting of primary engine speed reduction via pulleys and V-belts, driving a secondary reduction Main Rotor Gearbox (MRG) on one side and shaft drive to Tail Rotor Gearbox (TRG) on the other.
Engine power is transmitted inline with the crankshaft via a rubber flex-coupling to the primary reduction drive unit’s bottom six V-belt pulley. The V-belt pulley reduction drive unit is made up of two machined Duralumin side frames held apart by a central box rib spacer. Between these side frames are the small bottom and larger top aluminum drive pulleys. Each pulley is bolted to a steel shaft and is supported by large sealed bearings on each side. Each reduction drive bearing sits in a steel bearing holder which is bolted to each side frame. The upper pulley has the Sprague clutch (free-wheeling unit) incorporated into it. The steel Sprague clutch is connected to the splined MRG pinion shaft and supported by a large sealed bearing in its steel sleeve at the rear. The 40 mm diameter steel pinion gear shaft is supported by two large tapered roller bearings, lubricated from MRG oil. These two tapered roller bearings fit into a steel housing and this housing is in turn bolted to the CNC machined MRG housing. The sealed bearings in the reduction drive unit have a tela-temp to check bearing condition in pre-flight. The poly-V-pulleys drive six Kevlar reinforced V-belts and the top end of the reduction drive unit is covered with a composite shroud on each side to keep the rain water off and fingers out.
When starting the helicopter engine, the rotors have to be disengaged, so the six un-tensioned V-belts are used as a clutch on start up. After the engine has started, the clutch switch mounted on the instrument pannel is switched to "engage" and the amber clutch light will indicate that the clutch is engaging which slowly tensions the six V-belts using an electric actuator. The V-belt tensioning is via a rocker arm and idler pulley assembly pushing the v-belts towards the center. Tensioning the V-belts in this manner increases the “wrap angle” around the drive pulleys thus ensuring no slippage with less belt tension. The belt tensioning is pre set using a built-in compression spring and takes less than one minute for clutch light to extinguish indicating the clutch is fully engaged.
At the rear end of the MRG pionion gear shaft, is a flex-plate coupling that connects to the front of the tail rotor drive shaft, with another flex-plate coupling connecting to the tail rotor gearbox at rear. The tail rotor gearbox is constructed from a machined Duralumin casing and two steel housings attached at 90° housing the bearings. There is a hardened spiral-bevel gear set with a large oil sight-glass at rear. There is no chip detector, but a tela-temp is fitted.
The 1-3 Sanka is designed for use in two configurations, namely as a two person craft, where the maximum gross weight is 650 kg due to center-of-gravity limitations and also as a future crop-spraying craft. The MRG is designed to operate continuously at the engines maximum output of 156 hp and at an all up weight of 740kg for the crop-spraying configuration. (The crop-spraying system, will only be available later.) The large MRG casing is machined from solid billet and has a protrusion machined on the rear to house the pinion gear assembly within its steel housing. The CNC machined and internally ribbed top casing houses the larger taper-roller thrust bearing, whilst the bottom externally ribbed casing supports the smaller taper-roller bearing that holds the main rotor shaft. The large 280 mm diameter spiral-beveled ring-gear and matching pinion-gear are both hardened.
A steel gear journal bolts to the inside of the ring-gear and is fastened to the main rotor shaft on a 64 mm diameter splined section to transfer the torque. A 10mm section of the main rotor mast above where the ring gear is attached, protrudes 78 mm in diameter and this protrusion is what carries the helicopter weight via the large thrust bearing. All the parts I examined looked more than capable of handling several times more than the mere 740 kg gross weight of the aircraft. The MRG has no chip detector, but has a magnetic plug, a large oil sight-glass and a temperature sensor. I can say that the gearbox’s both run cool, as after a 30 minute hovering session in the factory yard with two on board the operating temp was approximately 60 to 70°C and the TRG was only luke-warm. It was however a cold day with outside air temperature at 14°C.
The rotor head design used on the 1-3 Sanka is unusual and unique for such a light helicopter. The technical name is a “Laminated Blade Retention System” also sometimes called a laminated torsion bar system. This system is currently used on both the American Apache-Longbow and the Russian Black-Shark attack helicopters. It is also used on some Hughes helicopter models. The main rotor has three composite blades rotating clock-wise, whilst the tail rotor has two composite blades. The main rotor blades operating speed range markings are, 460 rpm = red range low rpm limit, 465 to 505 = lower cautionary range, 505 and 565 rpm = green band, 570 to 595 rpm = upper caution band and 600 rpm = red range high rpm limit.
The Laminated torsion bars (Lam-TB's) are each made from a stack of sixteen "Y" – shaped steel plates. These lam-TB's are very flexible up and down, twist easily and replace the more conventional, but bulky and heavy lead-lag, flapping and feathering hinges commonly used. The best comparison I can think of is a stack of engine feeler gauges that also bend and twist easily.
The rotor blades are mounted with a slight rearward lag angle relative to the rotor mast center. The precise angle being calculated to try neutralise the effects of drag and centrifugal force, so that both arms of the "Y" remain under similar tension. For rotor blade pitch control, a composite torque-tube is placed over the Lam-TB’s, fixed to the steel blade grip on the blade side and, has a central pivoting bearing on the rotor hub side to allow for blade feathering and flapping. On the outside section of the torque tube nearest the hub is a machined Duralumin “ear” that the pitch-links connect to. There are four large inspection holes at the front and back of each torque tube to allow easy inspection of the LamTB’s during pre-flights. The LamTB’ are non-serviceable items and replaced "on-condition". The replacement of these torsion bars does not appear very difficult to perform. The major advantages are mechanical simplicity, massive weight savings, ease of inspection and no service maintenance. The tail rotor torsion bar is replaced at helicopters design service life of 2000 hours.
The tail rotor hub:
The tail rotor system also uses a straight laminated torsion bar instead of thrust bearings to contain centrifugal forces.
5) Fork nut
7) Laminated metal torsion bar
8) Torsion bar bushes
9) Fork washer
10, 11, 12) Fork bearings, bushes, nut & washers
The composite main rotor blades have a non-linear -9.5° twist and a variable profile NACA 63012 / 63015. They are constructed by first creating a high tensile rectangular box shaped spar from composite material which is cured in its electrically heated mould. This spar is then placed into the blade mould where profiled lead weight is added to the outboard 2 meters of the front leading edge and Rohacell foam added as trailing edge inserts. This whole assembly is then skinned in composite material and cured. Stainless steel bushes are placed at attachment points and the leading edge wear strip is applied once the blades have been cleaned and painted. Each finished blade weighs approx 7.5 kg.
The tail rotor blades are also made of composite material and Rohacell foam with a leading edge wear strip. Both the main and tail rotor blades have no time life and are only replaced "on-condition". The outside appearance and quality of the rotor blades was excellent. None of the Sanka helicopters I have flown in had trim-tab blade adjustments, yet were all smooth in flight, even during steep turns and at VNe.
The 1-3 Sanka has standard helicopter dual controls with both cyclic and collective sticks having adjustable frictions. The cyclic friction is on the left stick ( Pilot in command seat) and uses a floor mounted dome friction system with a rotating collar around the base of the stick for adjustment. The collective friction is at the base of the central collective stick and is adjusted by means of a horizontal wheel. I did not notice a throttle friction, but in flight the throttle stayed pretty much where you left it, so there did not appear to be a need for one.
The collective stick movement is well correlated with the throttle and does a good job of keeping engine and rotor rpm in the “wide green band” with only small pilot input required during transitions and aggressive maneuvers. A throttle governor system is offered as a factory fitted option to make pilot control even easier. This governor system consists of a Subaru “cruise-control” unit adapted for helicopter use. It is switched on and off with a push-button on the cyclic grip. This governor system is fine for sedate type flying and cruising and is not as responsive as the governor on the CH-7 Kompress or the R 22. On the cyclic grip, there are three other push buttons, one for the radio, and one spare which I now use to change radio frequencies. There is also an "Coolie hat" 4-way toggle switch on top of the cyclic stick which is not used at present.
The anti-torque foot pedals are not adjustable, but the seats can be adjusted forward or backward slightly, by realeasing the four bolts mounting it to the cabin floor and rebolting. (Not something you would do quickly or often) I did find all the controls comfortable, easy to reach and operate, and for my height of 1,81 meters, were all well placed.
The collective and cyclic control inputs are transmitted to the rotor system via Duralumin tube control rods and levers. The anti-torque control inputs are transmitted via a combination of levers, cables and pushrods. All moving parts of the control system rotate in sealed bearings and all fasteners are either safety-wired or use castle-nuts with split-pins for security.
The collective lever has an unusual “neutral-stick” feature fitted just below the cabin floor. The purpose of this feature is to hold the collective down when not in use and once lifted up, as in flying, it becomes neutral in weight and stays pretty much in place with minimal collective friction applied. This prevents pilot left arm fatigue on longer flights, but still allows one to lower the collective in an emergency. It achieves this mechanically via a spring loaded override mechanism. The detail mechanical workings of the control system below the cabin floor, can be studied from attached photos of an unpainted factory mock-up.
Three long control-rods, for cyclic and collective control, route vertically aft of the cabin and connect to three small walking-beams attached to the front of the MRG. From the opposite side of each walking-beam is a short control rod that links to the static lower swash plate spider. Then from the top rotating swash plate spider are connected the three blade pitch control rods.
The swash plate has rubber bellow covers top and bottom protecting the fiber ball and rotor mast from dust and water where they slide against each other.
Anti-torque control inputs are transmitted from the foot pedals via rods to a quadrant cable pulley below the cabin floor. Attached to this quadrant pulley are two 3mm stainless steel control cables going aft and guided by numerous grooved rollers to another identical quadrant cable pulley at the rear of the tail boom. From this rear quadrant pulley is a short control rod connected to the tail rotor pitch control lever. The tail rotor pitch slider also has two rubber bellow dust covers to keep water and grime out. All the grooved cable guide rollers have ball bearings and a safety bar above the control cables, thus preventing the possibility of a slack cable jumping out from the guide rollers.
My general impression of all the control components are that they are well machined, robust and should comfortably last the 2000 hour life of the helicopter before overhaul.
The cabin is very spacious and comfortable for two large persons and at 1,353 mm wide you don’t rub elbows, even when wearing bulky clothing. By comparison the Robinson and Rotorway cabins are 1,100 mm wide.
The composite cabin floor together with its lower triangulated aluminium sub-frame are the main structural elements. The floor is made of a 16mm plywood with machined out pockets so as to leave a light wooden grid. This wooden grid matches with all the required attachment points for the sub-frame and other control attachment points. All the machined out pockets are filled with foam inserts. then a skin of composite material is applied to both sides resulting in a very light and rigged floor structure. The lower Duralumin frame is made up of riveted together CNC machined elements which are attached to the rest of the airframe.
The seat frames are made from Titanium tubing, has a riveted aluminium sheet base to which the cushion material is fastened, then covered in leather. Each seat is equipped with a 4-point safety harness, the shoulder harness being anchored to the floor/sub-frame at the rear of each seat. There is a leather bag off approx 10 L volume located under the passenger seat for small items. A small fire extinguisher is located under the pilot seat.
The rounded shaped cabin upper body is made from composite material with the four separate tinted polycarbonate windscreens bonded into place, thus forming one single light ridged structure.
The lower belly-panel, also made from composite material is held in place with screws, thus allowing access to control linkages, the lightweight "Red-Top" racing battery and electrical wiring loom.
The composite door frames are bonded to the tinted polycarbonate windows and a rubber extrusion fitted around its inner edge. Each door is fixed with two hinges up front and closed with a simple latch at the rear. The doors can be easily removed if required. The VNE is limited to 150 kmh (80 knots) with doors off at sea level.
The instrument pedestal is constructed of riveted aluminium sheeting and the three separate front panels cascade down at varying angles to better match the pilots view. The pedestal also houses the cabin heating system with its plumbed hot water from the engine, small radiator and electric fan and its temp controls.
The smaller factory-standard top panel is replaced with a wider panel for South African models.
The top panel houses a 9 warning light cluster, an LED rotor and engine RPM gauge, a 120 knot Airspeed indicator, a 2000 ft/min vertical speed indicator, a 20,000 ft sensitive altimeter with milbar subscale, an LED main rotor blade pitch gauge, the Enigma Stratomaster glass display and the Garmin GTX327 mode C transponder.
The Enigma Stratomaster is a truly amazing instrument and was developed and manufactured in Cape Town by MGL Avionics. The Enigma is fed information from an attitude sensor, Magnetometer, pitto tube, GPS antennae and the Remote Data Acquisition Computer or RDAC. The RDAC in turn is connected to engine sensors independent from those signaling the 9 warning light cluster. These sensors include, oil pressure, oil and water temperature, manifold pressure, four Exhaust Gas Temperature probes (EGT's), fuel flow, rotor and engine rpm. There are many additional ports where if one wishes, you can add additional sensors. The Enigma also has an altitude encoder and provides information to the Garmin transponder.
The Enigma provides the following instruments and information types. Full VFR flight instruments as back up, an artificial horizon, full GPS moving map functions, highway in the sky (HITS) navigation, forward looking 3D terrain and airport views, horizontal situation indicator (HSI), terrain awareness and warning system, wind speed and direction components plus a complete engine monitoring system with a user choice of alarms including voice warnings, to prompt pilot if a parameter reaches a user programmable limit. This in brief is a summary of it main functions, but to learn more and try out the Enigma simulator visit www.mglavionics.co.za
The center panel houses a fuel gauge, water temperature gauge, MRG temperature guage, the Microair radio/com, the master, ignition and clutch switches and the cabin heat controls.
The bottom panel houses the electrical fuses and switches for, MGL system Landing light, Navigation and instrument lights, Radiator fans, Rotor speed warning and governor system.
The Hobbs meter is fitted on the left side of the pedestal.
There are two hooks for hanging headsets in the center of the roof and the rear cabin bulkhead was covered in a felt like material. There is a small round porthole window to allow the pilot to look reawards while on the ground. The quality of fit and finish was high and other than the panel layout review, I would only add two small rubber mats where the heel of your shoes would soon spoil the carpeting. …..Mere nitpicking details!
The 1-3 Sanka is powered by the proven and extremely reliable Subaru EJ 25 motorcar engine.
The Subaru engine's (all brand new units) use the mechanical / cable throttle control system, instead of the "electronic fly-by-wire" throttle control. The engine is a water cooled flat four cylinder, (Boxer) with fuel injection, single overhead camshaft, four valves per cylinder and solid state electronic ignition and duel fuel pumps. The engine’s bore to stroke dimensions are over-square at 99.5 mm by 81 mm. This over-square characteristic typically allows engines to operate at higher rpm more easily without overstressing, and also enables the use of larger inlet and exhaust valves, thus allowing easier engine breathing at higher rpm. The engine is very smooth indeed at all engine speeds. The engine automatically adjusts the fuel mixture for varying altitudes, so there is no mixture adjustment required by the pilot. The Yanvar Engine Control Unit is a programable ECU and is programed to match helicopter requirements.
The large and heavy "Varta" battery in the first machines has been replaced by an English made "Red Top" racing battery. This new battery is half the size, lighter and has been repositioned from the right hand side of the airframe, to under the cabin floor, just below the instrument consul.
In the 1-3 Sanka with the rotors turning at 565 rpm (105.5% - top of green band) the engine turns at 5,600 rpm, so as to have full power available when lifting off or landing. Bottom of green band equals 5,000 rpm and level flight cruise with governor set to middle of green (100%) equates to 5,300 rpm. The Engine redline is 6,200 rpm.
In the early years of flight, big bore slower turning motors were developed for propeller aircraft to avoid having a reduction gearbox between it and the propeller, to prevent the tips of the propellers exceeding the speed of sound. Also, electronics were not too reliable then either and it was prudent to have a back up…..I.E. with twin magnetos. This in essence is the crop of traditional certified aircraft engines still manufactured and available today and they still all run on leaded Avgas fuel developed during the 2nd World War.
These engines tend to be costly due to low volume production and with frequent technological advancements of the type-certified design impeded due to the crippling costs of re-certification each time major changes are done.
But we have moved on somewhat since the war, with motorcar and motorcycle engine technology surpassing the traditional aircraft engine by leaps and bounds in terms of performance per displacement and excellent high production volume cost efficiencies, reducing purchase and operating costs, whilst continually improving reliability.
For helicopters the operating speed of the motor is irrelevant, as it must be geared down to turn the relatively slow turning main rotors, so higher spinning motors are no problem. Some helicopter turbine engines spin at 60,000 rpm so, high speed petrol engines are slow by comparison.
Some folks will baulk at the idea of a single ignition system on an aircraft engine as magnetos do sometimes fail, but cars moved away from magneto ignition (50 to 60 years ago?) in favour of points and distributor, then finally to present day electronic ignition systems with no moving parts to wear out thus improving reliability and reducing costs.
Each set of spark plugs on the Subaru has its own ignition coil and the entire electronic ignition system is totally waterproof. I flew twice in rain (With HT ignition coils totally exposed to water, before they later installed the engine shroud) and their test pilots had flown several hundred hours, including in rain and snow without missing a beat. I did a little research myself by speaking to the two senior Subaru mechanics and asked them how often they had encountered an ignition failure or a catastrophic mechanical failure on any model Subaru car in the six years that the Bellville/Cape Town workshop has been opened? …Not one.
When last did you experience ignition failure in a car of 1995 vintage onwards, or know of some one else who has experienced this problem? Don’t confuse car alarm systems shutting the car off, …….the Sanka does not have a burglar alarm!
I am no agent for Subaru, although I did discover it and purchased a 2.5 Subaru Forrester 18 months before I knew that the 1-3 Sanka even existed, but to those who have never driven in a Subaru, ……be brave, forget status and test drive one to experience the motor! (The car by the way is also very nice to drive!)
All modern car engine designs undergo a 500 hour test at full throttle (100% power) after which the engine is dismantled and inspected. After such a test there should be minimal wear to any of the engine components.
Besides being an excellent engine (Subaru is the most popular motorcar engine used in experimental / amateur built / kit aircraft world wide) it is inexpensive to service or overhaul, as one is charged “car” instead of “aircraft” prices.
Another advantage is the substantially lower cost of petrol compared to Avgas ( Approx. 30% cheaper) plus the big convenience of having it available almost every where, and being unleaded, it is also kinder on the environment.
Through experience I have found that operating on Avgas somewhat diminishes the flexibility and go anywhere advantage of a helicopter, as Avgas is usually only available from the larger airfields or airports. Of course one can organise a ground crew to road-haul drums of fuel to where you want to fly to, but what a schlep!
On the Sanka engine, the standard inlet manifold is rotated 180° so that the air filter faces rearwards. A new light weight alternator is repositioned off center and fits in a specially made adjustable braket. The exhaust system and silencer is manufactured by Aerokopter. The positioning of the engine on the Sanka makes it the easiest engine to service of any helicopter.
AK1-3 SANKA HELICOPTER SPECIFICATIONS
- Main rotor diameter
- Number of rotor blades
- Rotor head type
- Rotor tip speed
- Blade chord
- Blade profile
- Disc area
- Tail rotor diameter
- Blade number
- Blade chord
- Blade profile
- Blade tip speed
- Engine type & make
- Engine power
- Full power duty limitation
- General dimensions:
- Cabin width
- Skid width
- Total overall length
- Top of cabin roof to ground
- Height of rotor head above ground
- Tail fin area
- Horizontal stabilizer area
- Gross weight (Passenger mode)
- Dry weight
- Empty weight (Oils, coolant, reserve fuel)
- Fuel tank capacity
- Fuel type
- Useful load @ 650 kg gross weight
- Maximum level speed 650 kg @ SL
- Cruising speed 650 kg @ 75% power
- Vne 650 kg @ SL
- Vne @ SL (Doors removed)
- Max rate of climb at 630 kg @ SL
- Service ceiling @ 650 kg
- Hover ceiling in-ground-effect @ 650kg
- Hover ceiling out of ground effect @ 650kg
- Min rate of decent in autorotation @ 650kg
- Max endurance @ 45 knots
- Max range @ 65 knots (Best range speed)
- Max range @ 85 knot cruise speed
CROP SPRAY VERSION
- Gross weight
- Useful load @ 740 kg gross weight
- Maximum level speed 740 kg @ SL
6.84 m (22ft 5.5”)
3 – composite material with -9.5° non liner twist
Bearing-less design using laminated steel torsion bars
205 m/sec. (672 ft/sec)
0.17 m (6.7”)
NACA 63012/63015 Rectangular shape
36.745 m² (399.48 ft²)
1.28 m (4’ 2.4”)
0.115 m (4.5”)
186.3 m/s (611ft/sec)
Piston, Fuel-injected, EJ-25 Subaru 2457cc
Flat-four cylinder OHC 4 valves per cylinder
115kw (156 hp)
All bolts sizes on airframe and engine are metric
1.353 m ( 4’ 5 1/4”)
1.722 m (5’ 7.8”)
8.096 m (26’ 6.6”) tip of front rotor to tip of tail rotor
1.936 m (6’ 4.2”)
2.270 m (7’ 5.4”)
650 kg (1431 LB)
395 kg (869LB)
410 kg (902LB)
72L (19.1 US gallons) (53 kg)
95 octane unleaded petrol
240 kg (528 LB)
180 kmh (112mph) (97knts)
157 kmh (97mph) (85knts)
180 kmh (112mph) (97knts)
150 kmh (93mph) (81knots)
9 m/s (1770 ft/min)
3000 m (9,850 ft)
2200 m (7,000 ft)
1550 m (5,100 ft)
9 m/s (1800ft/min) @ 85kmh (53mph) (46 knts)
350 km (200 SM)
270 km (160 SM)
(Crop spray equipment not yet available for sale)
740 Kg (1630 LB)
367 kg (808 LB)
135 kmh (84 mph) (73 knots)